Digital control is an automatic control technology developed in modern times. The national standard (GB8129-87) is defined as "a method for controlling the movement of machine tools and its machining process with digital signals", referred to as numerical control (NC).
CNC machine tools are machine tools that use CNC technology. The Fifth Technical Committee of the International Federation of Information Processing defines the CNC machine as follows: "The CNC machine is a machine tool with a program control system that can logically process code with use, or other symbolic code. In other words, CNC machine tools are highly efficient and automated machine tools that use computers to control digitally. They can be digital and text-coded according to international or national or even manufacturers. Kinds of mechanical displacement, process parameters (such as spindle speed, cutting speed), auxiliary functions (such as tool change, cutting fluid automatic supply and stop, etc.), expressed by numbers and text symbols, after the program control system, that is, the logic processing of the CNC system With the calculation, various control commands are issued to realize the required mechanical actions and automatically complete the machining task. When the part being machined or the machining operation is changed, it can realize new control by simply changing the command program of the control. Therefore, CNC machine tools are a kind of mechatronics processing equipment with strong flexibility, high technology intensity and high degree of automation. It is suitable for small and medium batch production and is an indispensable processing unit in flexible manufacturing systems.
CNC technology and CNC machine tools are one of the most important basic technologies for flexible manufacturing and computer integrated manufacturing. CNC machine tools and their numerical control equipment are the most basic processing units of the manufacturing system. With the continuous development and rapid application of microelectronics technology, computer technology, automatic control and precision measurement technology, in the manufacturing industry, CNC technology and CNC machine tools have also been developed from practical to practical, and constantly updated, to high speed, multi-function , intelligent, open and high reliability and other aspects of rapid development. Current flexible automation (single machine and production system) is the trend of the world's mechanical and electronic industry. The application of numerical control technology, the production volume of CNC machine tools has become an important indicator to measure the degree of industrialization and technology of a country.